Discuss the Marketing communication process / Marketing communications

Discuss the Marketing communication process

Effective use of marketing
A commonality shared by all elements of the promotional mix is that their function is to communicate. Thus, it is important that advertising and promotional planners have an understanding of the communication process. This chapter reviews the fundamentals of communication and examines various perspectives regarding how consumers respond to promotional messages. Communication has been variously defined as the “passing of information, ” the “exchange of ideas, ” or the “process of establishing a commonness or oneness of thought between a sender and a receiver.” For communication to occur there must be some common thinking or ground between the two parties and a passing of information. The communications process is often very complex with success depending on many factors such as the nature of the message, audience interpretation and the environment in which it is received along with the receiver’s perception of the source and medium. The challenge of developing effective marketing communications becomes particularly evident when companies are developing advertising and promotional messages for foreign markets or for certain ethnic markets in the U.S.

BASIC MODEL OF COMMUNICATION

Over the years a basic model of communications has evolved that represents the various elements of the communications process. The elements of the model include:

A. Source/Encoding—the sender or source of a communication is the person or organization who has information to share with another person or group. It should be noted that the source can be an individual (e.g., salesperson or hired spokesperson) or a nonpersonal entity such as the corporation or organization itself. The receivers’ perception of the source influences the manner in which the communication is received, interpreted and responded to.

Encoding is the process of putting together thoughts, ideas and information into a symbolic form to communicate a message. The sender’s goal is to encode the message in such a manner so as to ensure that it will be understood by the receiver.

B. Message—the encoding process leads to the development of a message that contains the information or meaning the source or sender hopes to convey. Messages can take a variety of forms and may include symbolic forms or signs. To better understand the symbolic meaning that might be conveyed in a communication, many advertisers have begun focusing attention on semiotics, which involves the study of the nature of meaning. From a semiotic perspective, every marketing message has three basic components: an object, a sign or symbol and an interpretant. The object is the product that is the focus of the message (e.g. Marlboro cigarettes). The sign is the sensory imagery that represents the intended meaning of the object (e.g., the Marlboro cowboy). The interpretant is the meaning derived (e.g., rugged, individualistic, American).

The message must be put into a transmittable form that is appropriate for the channel of communication being used. Advertising messages range from simply written words or copy that will be read or heard as a radio message to the expensive production of elaborate television commercials with a great deal of visual impact and imagery.


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